Interview with Cinematographer Christophe Graillot (A Bag of Marbles, La Garde)

Christophe Graillot is a true artistic talent. Just watch the recent film A BAG OF MARBLES to see how he conveys a story through light and shadows. It was on honor interviewing him:

Matthew Toffolo: Where were you born and raised? Was photography something you always wanted to do as your career?

Christophe Graillot: I was born in a suburb of Paris and raised in Paris. As long as I can remember I always wanted to be photographer. I have a background in graphic arts and I taught myself the trade of Director of Photography.

What has been your most proudest work of your career? Or, what has been your favorite project to date?

I don’t know. Every project I’m proud of. Every job I learn something new and unique. My favorite project is the next one.

Right now you’re working in Praque. What’s the film? And are you having an okay time in the Czech Republic?

I’m shooting a TV movie, A Christmas love story. We’re in a beautiful location called Mala Upa, which is close to Poland. All is good as I’m lucky working with a Czech crew. I’m working with an amazing Focus Puller.

Tell us about working on the film A BAR OF MARBLES. How does this film differentiate from other WWII films?

A special project for me. I was lucky to work for the second time with director Christian Duguay. Christian also an amazing Steady-cam operator. One of my most beautiful movie encounters. This film has the particularity of seeing the second World War from the point of view of two children.

Is there a type of film/TV show that you love to work on that you haven’t worked on yet?

I’d like to do a musical comedy and a boxing film. Two types of stylistic exercises.

What are you generally looking for in a director in order for you to do your job as best as possible?

A good story and their desire to find the best way to tell it. And their madness…!

What do you think a producer/director is looking for when they bring on you to DP the film?

Don’t know. Availability 😀

What is your passion in life besides photography and film?

My family. I take the opportunity now to thank my wife because it’s not always easy to follow the life of a DOP.

What movie have you watched the most times in your life (besides the ones you worked on?

When I was young, I watched a french movie « La Grande Vadrouille » at least 30 times.

What advice do you have for young cinematographers who would eventually like to DP movies for a living one day?

Simple advice: Speak well to everyone, be on time and never forget how lucky you are to do this job!

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Interviewer Matthew Toffolo is currently the CEO of the WILDsound FEEDBACK Film & Writing Festival. The festival that showcases 20-50 screenplay and story readings performed by professional actors every single month. And the FEEDBACK Monthly Festival held in downtown Toronto, and Los Angeles at least 3 times a month. Go to http://www.wildsoundfestival.com for more information and to submit your work to the festival.

Interview with Cinematographer Dan Stoloff (Suits, The Americans, Zoo)

Dan Stoloff is one of the top television cinematographers working today. He also DP’d the films TUMBLEWEEDS, MIRACLE and CROOKED ARROWS to name a few. It was an honor interviewing him. Check out his website and list of credits at: http://danstoloff.com/

Matthew Toffolo: Where were you born and raised? Was photography something you always wanted to do as your career?

Dan Stoloff: I was raised in Newton, Mass, just outside of boston. I knew from the time i was about 11 that I wanted to be a cinematographer. We had a Super 8 camera and I started making my own films. It was my favorite thing to do, and I decided if there was a way to make a living doing it, I would.

What has been your most proudest work of your career? Or, what has been your favorite project to date?

I would say the 2 final episodes of “The Americans”. I was so fortunate to become a part of The Americans in season 5. One of my favorite shows of all time, and to get the gig was like The Rolling Stones asking me to join the band!

You DP’d a ton of SUITS episodes. A show filmed in Toronto. How are the Toronto crews? Do you like the fast pace of shooting a series like this in comparison to feature film?

I did almost 50 episodes of suits. All shot in Toronto. Love the crews there. Very technically proficient and so polite! I love the pace of episodic TV. Everyday seems unmakeable at the outset and yet daily we rise to the challenge.

The most famous film you probably worked on was MIRACLE. How did you get involved in that project? What do you remember most about that shoot?

I had shot “Tumbleweeds” for director Gavin O’Conner and we had a wonderful collaboration. He fought hard to get the studio to agree to have me on board. I had never done a studio project before and they were justifiably cautious. After many meetings with many execs they finally agreed to give me a shot. What was most memorable about that shoot was the way the project itself mirrored the actual subject. All those kids were real hockey players. The celebration you see at the end of that film was real. The tears were real. The kids puking during drills was real.

Is there a type of film/TV show that you love to work on that you haven’t worked on yet?

I would like to do a period project before electricity existed.

What are you generally looking for in a director in order for you to do your job as best as possible?

I love a director who knows his (her) material. Knows the characters and creates an atmosphere that provides the freedom for discovery.

What do you think a producer/director is looking for when they bring on you to DP the film?

Those are 2 different questions. The answer is as different as the people themselves. All want the project executed efficiently and on schedule and budget. Some directors want visual suggestions, others not. All producers want you to make the day,

What is your passion in life besides photography and film?

I love to surf, hike, kayak, do yoga, mountain bike ride, play guitar

What movie have you watched the most times in your life (besides the ones you worked on)?

The Godfather. The Big Lebowski. The Godfather part 2

What advice do you have for young cinematographers who would eventually like to DP movies for a living one day?

Educate your mind and your body. Go to museums, read novels, see movies, and stay in shape. Often our job is as physical as it is mental. Always get to set early. Be nice to everyone.

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PHOTO from the TV Show “SUITS”
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Interviewer Matthew Toffolo is currently the CEO of the WILDsound FEEDBACK Film & Writing Festival. The festival that showcases 20-50 screenplay and story readings performed by professional actors every single month. And the FEEDBACK Monthly Festival held in downtown Toronto, and Los Angeles at least 3 times a month. Go to http://www.wildsoundfestival.com for more information and to submit your work to the festival.

Interview with Cinematographer Tristan Oliver (Isle of Dogs, ParaNorman, Fantastic Mr. Fox)

It was a true honor interviewing the extremely talented Director of Photographer Tristan Oliver. Every single film he’s worked on has turned out great. And there’s not many people you can say that statement about! If you don’t believe, simply go to his website and watch some of the short films he’s worked on and see his list of feature credits: https://www.tristanoliver.co.uk/

Matthew Toffolo: Where were you born and raised? Was cinematography something you always wanted to do as your career?

Tristan Oliver: I was born and raised in Gravesend in Kent. An unlovely and somewhat godforsaken town on the Thames estuary.

I knew nothing about films or photography as a child. My main passion was the theatre. I wanted to act (or be a doctor or something) My first real contact with the camera dept came when I was acting in a movie. It was something of a Damascene moment and I really threw myself into trying to get into that environment immediately afterwards. I didn’t even own a stills camera when that movie started!

What has been your most proudest work of your career? Or, what has been your favorite project to date?

In terms of feature films I would say ParaNorman. I had a fantastic time at Laika for two years and a very close, creative and rewarding relationship with the directors of that movie. I’m exceptionally proud of how it looks (even if no-one has seen it.)

Can you explain to us what an Animation Director of Photography does?

There is really no difference in being a DOP for stop frame or live action. The ultimate aim is to create something beautiful for the camera. To light and frame according to what you consider to be visually special. I wouldn’t want to make concessions to the medium of animation. That is by the by.

In practical terms, there are a few differences. We typically run a 50+ unit shooting environment which is an enormous amount of stuff to keep tabs on. That’s 50 sets, 50 cameras all running together. I need to ensure continuity and quality of look across that huge mess of stuff.

Other than that the main difference is working into the macro end of the lenses which can severely compromise the depth of field. We tend to work at very tight stops (16, 22) to compensate for this.

You just finished working on ISLE OF DOGS. Can you give us a sneak peak of what do expect?

Unique. Many of his tropes will be familiar to audiences. The flat lighting. The highly symmetrical framing. The art direction and propping. This particular movie is very busy and visually complicated. Compared with Fantastic Mr Fox for example it is really intense viewing. There’s an awful lot going on up there!

Is there a type of film/TV show that you love to work on that you haven’t worked on yet?

I’d love to get my teeth into some American TV drama. The quality of work coming out of the States is astonishing. There’s so much of it and it’s nearly all really good. Well written, well plotted and edited. Everything.

In terms of movies, more live action please. I need a rest from the puppets!

What are you generally looking for in a director in order for you to do your job as best as possible?

All directors are different and as such, what they require from the DOP varies. Wes wants me to exactly put up on the screen what he has in his head. It is totally his vision so my role is very much reactive. With some other directors there is more of a creative collaboration, the role is proactive if you will. Neither is necessarily better than the other as long as you trust the director to bring the movie in.

What do you think a producer/director is looking for when they bring on you to DP the film?

I’d like to think that I’m the best at what I do. I have a huge amount of experience. I’m very professional and I bring on the best, most user friendly crews but essentially what a director needs is someone they can trust.

What is your passion in life besides cinematography and film?

So many. My daughters, my partner, beautiful Swiss wristwatches, restoring my 17th century house, good food, good wine , good company.

What movie have you watched the most times in your life (besides the ones you worked on?

There are lots but probably Kind Hearts and Coronets, the first Matrix and Ferris Beuler’s Day Off. That’s just for fun. In terms of cinematography, I think Conrad Hall was a genius and I can watch Road To Perdition any day of the week.

What advice do you have for young cinematographers who would eventually like to DP movies for a living one day?

Keep learning. Watch movies, read about movies. Who do you like? Why? Think about how stuff has been made. Don’t rely on your innate talent but keep building your technical knowledge, the two together will be very useful to you. And never ever send out a CV for a camera trainee position with your name followed by the letters DOP. It goes in the bin.

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Interviewer Matthew Toffolo is currently the CEO of the WILDsound FEEDBACK Film & Writing Festival. The festival that showcases 20-50 screenplay and story readings performed by professional actors every single month. And the FEEDBACK Monthly Festival held in downtown Toronto, and Los Angeles at least 3 times a month. Go to http://www.wildsoundfestival.com for more information and to submit your work to the festival.

Interview with Cinematographer Frank G. DeMarco (Hedwig and the Angry Inch, All is Lost)

It was an honor for the extremely talented DP, Frank G. DeMarco, to take some time out of his busy schedule to answer a set of questions for this interview.

https://www.frankiedemarco.com

Matthew Toffolo: Where were you born and raised?

Frank G. DeMarco: I was born in Baltimore, Maryland. After studying abroad in Italy and Austria, I moved to New York City—it’s America’s European city.

Was CINEMATOGRAPHY something you always wanted to do as your career?

I was fascinated by still cameras and had a little Super 8 movie camera as a youth, but I never thought I could make a living with either, so I got a college BA in Modern Languages. I became aware of Cinematography while studying in Florence, Italy during college. When I graduated, I discovered that there were very few jobs for linguists other than working for the NSA. Luckily, I got a gig on a tv commercial and then my life went in the best possible direction—filmmaking!

What has been your the proudest work of your career? Or, what has been your favorite project to date?

Hedwig and the Angry Inch was a big break for me and I am very proud of the work we did on it. I got to work with a brilliant actor-writer-singer-director-punk named John Cameron Mitchell. There were many pressures on us to compromise and make a lesser film, but we held on to the director’s vision and made a wonderful cult film that endures even to this day. We’ve done four films together and each one is very special in its own unique way. However, almost all of the films I have shot are my favorites—I try not to do a project unless I love the script and the director. Beerfest is my favorite comedy, Margin Call is my favorite thriller. Rabbit Hole is my favorite drama. All is Lost is my favorite adventure film. Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey is my favorite documentary. In the TV/Streaming world, I’m proud to say the first 5 episodes of Amazon’s Sneaky Pete Season 2 is the best-looking TV show I’ve shot to date.

Tell us about your working on the first season of MAD MEN. How was the creative vibe on set? Did people know they were onto something and this was going to be a special show?

With MAD MEN, the actors gave everything, the crew was top-notch and the scripts were always good. I loved Dan Bishop’s production design and the costumes were spot-on. Everyone hoped the show would get renewed for a second season, but, on the early episodes I worked on, I don’t think anyone could foresee how ground-breaking and special Mad Men was going to become.

You DP’d the film ALL IS LOST, which is a film with only one actor: Robert Redford. What was that experience like? I’m sure you haven’t had another shoot quite like that one.

All is Lost is a silent film—but with sound. I’m a huge fan of the silent films of Buster Keaton, Fatty Arbuckle, Charlie Chaplin and Harold LLoyd. Silent films are storytelling at its most basic level. I definitely used my study and knowledge of silent films to inform how I shot, lit and composed All is Lost. Working with an icon like Robert Redford was a highlight of my career. His Sundance Film Festival opened many doors for me and I got to thank him in person for that. Redford is an amazing “internal” actor—he doesn’t need words. He can convey what’s in his heart or on his mind with his face and eyes and body—he probably could have been a great silent film star, but then we would’ve been deprived of his wonderful voice!

What are you generally looking for in a director in order for you to do your job as best as possible?

It’s great to have a director that knows and likes my work! I look for directors that are collaborative and secure in their own abilities. The best directors I’ve worked with like to have ideas thrown at them. I’ve got many ideas and observations when I work on a film and it is a thrill and honor when the director incorporates some of my ideas into the film. I like a director who trusts me to light and compose the film according to the way we discussed in prep. I like a director who is willing to change everything if he sees a better way of doing a scene—and, even if it’s at the last minute and there’s no more time, I will do everything I can to facilitate that better idea. Most importantly, I like a director who is not only brilliant, but also kind and humble and generous and grateful. We’re all there to help him or her make the best film possible.

What do you think a producer/director is looking for when they bring on you to DP the film?

Producers usually want someone who is easy to get along with, won’t make waves, works fast and doesn’t cost too much to hire. Each director is so unique, but if they’ve hired me then they know they have a partner, a collaborator, a co-conspirator and friend that will help make the absolute best film possible.

What is your passion in life besides CINEMATOGRAPHY and film?

I love music: Debussy and jazz mostly. I bash away on a big 7 foot long Yamaha grand piano every day at home. When I travel I bring my sheet music and rent a digital piano for my hotel room. I enjoy cooking for people: when I filmed How to talk to Girls at Parties in England I hosted a Sunday roast for the director, producers, actors and friends every week. I still do it once in a while here in NYC. I love salt water and tides and am incredibly fortunate to have a little beach cottage on a barrier island off of Long Island, NY.

What movie have you watched the most times in your life (besides the ones you worked on)?

I’ve lost count of the times I’ve watched the following: Godfather 1, Fargo, Clockwork Orange, French Connection, The American Friend, Breathless, Goodfellas, The Third Man, Treasure of the Sierra Madre, and Dirty Pretty Things. I live across the street from the Film Forum in NYC, so I’m in that theater at least once or twice a week in my spare time watching non-mainstream films, retrospectives (Bergman this month!) and unusual documentaries—I just saw “Andy Goldsworthy: Leaning Into The Wind”. It is transcendent!

What advice do you have for young cinematographers who would eventually like to DP movies for a living one day?

Early in your career don’t have a mortgage or kids. Have cheap rent and minimum expenses. That way you can take the job you want that will advance your career, instead of taking the job you need because you are in debt or have mouths to feed. Make friends of everyone you meet. Help others. Be positive and hopeful!

 
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PHOTO: Frankie on the set of “How To Talk To Girls At Parties” with director John Cameron Mitchell
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Interviewer Matthew Toffolo is currently the CEO of the WILDsound FEEDBACK Film & Writing Festival. The festival that showcases 20-50 screenplay and story readings performed by professional actors every single month. And the FEEDBACK Monthly Festival held in downtown Toronto, and Los Angeles at least 3 times a month. Go to http://www.wildsoundfestival.com for more information and to submit your work to the festival.

Interview with Cinematographer Tobias Datum (Imposters, Mozart in the Jungle)

tobias_datum.jpgIt was a pleasure to have the very talented Director of Photographer Tobias Datum answer some questions.

Go to his website for more information: www.tobiasdatum.com

 Matthew Toffolo: Is there a project to date that you’ve worked on that you’re most proud of?

Not really. I do love all the things I have worked on. I put my best effort into all of them.

Sometimes they turn our great, sometimes they are less successful (according to my personal opinion) but I have yet to have a bad experience making a movie (knock on wood).

What was the biggest thing you learned working on the many shorts that you DP’d?

Shorts can be a great opportunity to try things out. They have a very different rhythm from features and are less forgiving than a longer project can be. You need to find your groove on set a lot faster because the schedule is shorter and the same goes for what you are shooting.

Everything is a bit tighter and you can’t slip

What suggestions would you have for up and coming cinematographers who want to be where you are?

Just keep working.

Keep your expenses low so you can afford to take on projects that don’t pay much but are projects you feel strong about.

Be nice to everybody, stay curious and excited about the work

You have been in a unique position where you were the Director of Photography on two seasons of “Mozart in the Jungle” and the current 1st season of “Imposters”. How have those experiences been like working with different directors for each episode while being the driving force for the look and tone of the television series?

Both of those shows are pretty intimate affairs.

In both cases the majority of episodes are directed by the creators and over the now 3 years of “Mozart” we have grown into a bit of a family.

Outside directors are usually pretty good fits into the existing group. In both cases the creators of the show have a lot of control over the show and the hiring.

I have only had great experiences with the “outside” directors.

In prep the first AD will also give them a good idea of where the challenges are and we then tackle those together as a group.

Most of the time the directors will have a very good idea what the show and are there to play and all of us, cast and crew, are open to play as well.

What are you looking for in your director when working on narrative shorts or features?

Mostly whether I can imagine spending a lot of time together with that person and enjoy it.

What is a director looking for in you?

If I knew… it’s probably different every time.

Is there a project that you love to work on that you haven’t worked on yet? (genre, style etc..)

Anything Azazel Jacobs is going to make in the future.

Where were you born and raised? What becoming a successful DP something you always dreamed of doing?

I was born and raised in Frankfurt, Germany.

No one in my family worked in film or media related jobs and I also didn’t watch much TV or go to the movies as a child and young adult.

I always had jobs as a teenager and ended up being involved in a little music/theater venue. There were a few par cans and a little dimmer board there and one day a friend who also worked there asked me if I could imagine working with him and 2 other guys at a much bigger venue in the summer for an annual theater series. I said yes and I ended up working there for 3 summers.

In that period of time the audience number grew so big that they had to hire someone who was certified. I was 18 at that time. That person took me on as an assistant and introduced me to film. Somehow I liked what a DP did and started exploring anything visual. I did internships/apprentice ships at a post production, editing and animation and worked as a electric and grip and ultimately applied for film school in Berlin, Germany.

After that I went to AFI where a met a lot of people who I still friends with and work with as well.

In short it was a bit accidental and I am still learning as I try to catch up.

What film, besides the ones you’ve worked on, have you seen the most time in your life?

Perhaps Harold and Maude. Not sure. I do like american movies from that time for sure.

In general I gravitate towards older movies. Often international movies.

I really like that streaming service https://www.filmstruck.com/

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Interviewer Matthew Toffolo is currently the CEO of the WILDsound FEEDBACK Film & Writing Festival. The festival that showcases 20-50 screenplay and story readings performed by professional actors every month. And the FEEDBACK Monthly Festival held in downtown Toronto, and Los Angeles at least 2 times a month. Go to www.wildsound.ca for more information and to submit your work to the festival.

Interview with Cinematographer Jon Aguirresarobe

jonaguirz.jpgAfter completing his postgraduate studies at the prestigious American Film Institute (AFI), Jon has been part of the team in great productions of the likes of Twilight, Eclipse or Fright Night, among others. He currently works as a cinematographer for several fiction and publicity projects in both the United States and Latin America. It was a true honor to interview this extremely talented DOP.

http://jonaguirresarobe.com

Matthew Toffolo: Where were you born and raised? Was being a cinematographer something you always wanted to do?

Jon Aguirresarobe: I was born and raised in San Sebastian, in the north of Spain. But I moved to Madrid when I was 18 years old. I always wanted to be a painter and I pursued that dream for a bit. When I was 26 I used to work for commercials and a little pic into a narrative project make me decide to become a cinematographer. Something that was close to me, thanks to my dad, for my entire life.

What film that you DP’d are you most proud of to date?

“Hunter Gatherer” is the film that I am the most proud of. We shot it with a minimal crew and lots of love and I believe you can feel that while watching the movie. Its an incredible honest movie and it gave us so many rewards.

 PHOTO of the film “Hunter Gatherer”:

huntergatherer

What was the biggest thing you learned working on the many short films you DP’d? Is there a place where we can watch some of them online?

I publish some of them on my website: http://jonaguirresarobe.com/. I´d rather be on set working on set than home so I have done many shorts before starting on the feature world. I got a lot out of them. On shorts you have the chance to try things, get hours on set and you never know, maybe meet someone that you can keep working with. In my case I met Director Eric Kissack who is one of the responsables of my careers growth.

What are you generally looking for in a director to make sure you do the best job possible?

I like to see the Directors passion and commitment with the story they want to tell. See if they know what they want and if they are clear and realistic about it. I like to understand what they like and sometimes even more important, what they don´t like. I do love directors that challenge me and push me out of the comfort zone. Then, in the perfect world, I like to see that the way the director is dreaming the story is the same way I am dreaming it.

What do you think a director is looking for in their cinematographer?

I believe they are looking for a person that is capable of putting into the image the vision they have in their mind. Someone that can add a unique point of view as well. I feel like today is also important, to be fast and resolutive. I think something they also look into that.

What is your passion in life besides cinematography?

I enjoy art, photography, family, friends and my bicycles.

What cinematographers (dead or alive) would you love to have dinner with?

Rodrigo Prieto, his work is impeccable and he is capable to adapt and fit any kind of story with the most elegant and fine style. He can shoot Beautiful and Passengers and adapt himself to completely different styles. He is incredible.

What movie have you watched the most times in your life (besides your own)?

It may be “Magnolia” from Paul Thomas Anderson. That movie motivated me to became a cinematographer.

What advice do you have for young photographers who would eventually like to be a cinematographer in the movies?

Always work towards the story you are telling. The cinematography is not always about pretty images, cinematography has to fit the script and the concept you are trying to tell the audience.

Work hard, take any opportunity to be on set and be nice, you never know who you have in front of you.

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Interviewer Matthew Toffolo is currently the CEO of the WILDsound FEEDBACK Film & Writing Festival. The festival that showcases 20-50 screenplay and story readings performed by professional actors every month. And the FEEDBACK Monthly Festival held in downtown Toronto, and Los Angeles at least 2 times a month. Go to www.wildsound.ca for more information and to submit your work to the festival.

LENSES & FILTERS. How to get the best shots in filmmaking

LENSES & FILTERS
FILMMAKING NOTES

Cinematography is the art of manipulating light and shadow, and capturing it as a moving image.

CINEMATOGRAPHY – SHOTS AND CAMERA ANGLES

QUESTIONS TO ASK:
-What is the best viewpoint for filming this position of the event?
-How much area should be included in this shot?

SCENE defines the place or setting where the action is laid
SHOT defines a continuous view filmed by one camera without
interruption

SEQUENCE A series of scenes or shots complete in itself.

TYPES OF CAMERA ANGLES
OBJECTIVE – The audience point of view
SUBJECTIVE – The camera acts as the viewers eyes-movement
POINT OF VIEW – What the character is seeing

CAMERA ANGLES – Are the most important factor in producing illusion of scenic depth. Which angle the object is photographed.

FIVE BASIC ANGLES

EYE LEVEL SHOTS – Provide frames or reference. Audiences sees the event as if in the scene. Most scenes in movies are photographed from eye level. 5 to 6 feet off the ground. Capturing the clearest view of an object.
-Treating your characters as equals. Discourages viewers at judging them and permits audience to make up their own minds.

BIRDS EYE VIEW – Photographing a scene from DIRECTLY OVERHEAD. Hovers from above like all powerful gods. Idea of fate.

HIGH ANGLED SHOTS – Camera is tilted downward. Movement is slowed down. A person seems harmless and insignificant photographed from above.
– The higher the angle, the more it tends to imply fatality

-Heightens the importance of a subject. Scenes depicting heroism

OBLIQUE ANGLE – Lateral tilt of the camera. As though the object is about to fall to one side. POINT OF VIEW SHOTS.
-Suggests tensions, transitions, impending movement
IMAGE THAT SLANTS TO THE RIGHT – Acting forceful
IMAGE THAT SLANTS TO THE LEFT – Weak, static

ASK YOURSELF
-How much should be included in this shot?
-Where should the camera be positioned to view this particular part of the action?
A shot should be held no longer than required to make its point.

Approach each sequence with a fresh attitude and strive to treat the action in an individual matter.

A definite change in camera angles will assure a smoother flow of images.

“And later I thought, I can’t think how anyone can become a director without learning the craft of cinematography.”
– Nicolas Roeg

SIX BASIC SHOTS

1) Extreme Long Shot – Taken at a great distance. Almost always an exterior shot and shows much of the locale. Establishing shots usually
2) Long Shot – The distance between the audience and the stage in the live theater
3) Full Shot – Barely including the whole body
4) Medium Shot – Knees to waste up. Useful for exposition scenes, carrying movement and for dialogue
5) Close-Up – Concentrates on a relatively small object. HUMAN FACE
6) Extreme Close-Up – Might just show eyes or mouth

CLOSEUPS
-Are among the most powerful storytelling devices available to the filmmaker
-Allows removal of tedious or repetitious action
-Can be used to provide a time lapse
-Bring that dramatic punch

FRAMES
-Area near the top of the frame can suggest ideas dealing with power, authority and aspiration
-Left and right edges of the frame can suggest insignificance

DOMINANT CONTRAST – Area that immediately attracts our attention because of a conspicuous and compelling contrast

SUBSIDARY CONTRAST – Structured image so that specific images are followed in sequence. Whatever character or object that is most dramatically important will assume dominance.

The HUMAN EYE scans pictures from left to right

HORIZONTAL LINES – Move from left to right
VERTICAL LINES – Move from top to bottom
DIAGONAL OR OBLIQUE LINES tend to sweep upward
TERRITORIAL SPACE – movie images must tell a story in time. A story that involves human beings and their problems.
THREE VISUAL PLACES – MIDGROUND, FOREGROUND, BACKGROUND

SPACE is one of the principal mediums of communication in film

Dominant characters are almost always given more space to occupy than others are.

You can define, adjust and redefine human relationships by exploiting spatial conventions

ACTOR CAN BE PHOTOGRAPHED IN FIVE BASIC POSITIONS
1) Full Front – Facing the camera
2) Quarter turn
3) PROFILE – looking off frame, left to right
4) Three quarter turn
5) Back to Camera

FULL FRONT – Most intimate, vulnerabilities exposed-Audience agrees to become their chosen confidante.

QUARTER TURN – Involves a high degree of intimacy but with less emotional involvements

PROFILE – More remote.
-Character lost in their own thoughts.

THREE QUARTER TURN – More anonymous. Rejecting audiences

BACK TO CAMERA – Characters alienation from the world. Sense of concealment, mystery.

TIGHTLY FRAMED SHOTS – Confined

LOOSLY FRAMED SHOTS – Freedom

PROXEMIC PATTERNS – Climax, noise level and the degree of light all tend to alter the space between individuals

1) INTIMATE – Eighteen inches away. Distance of LOVE, COMFORT, TENDERNESS between individuals

2) PERSONAL – Eighteen inches to about four feet away. Reserved for friends and acquaintances

3) SOCIAL – Four feet to about twelve feet away. Business and casual social gatherings

4) PUBLIC – Twelve to about twenty feet away.

ANALYSIS OF ANY GIVEN SHOT – TWELVE ELEMENTS

1) SHOT AND CAMERA PROXEMICS
-What type of shot is it? How far away from the action is the camera?

2) ANGLE
-Are we looking up or down on the subject, or is the camera neutral?

3) LENS and/or FILTER
-How do these distort or comment on the photographed materials?

4) LIGHTING STYLE
-High or low key lighting? High contrast? Some combination of these?

5) DOMINANT
-Where is our eye attracted first?

6) SUBSIDIARIES
-Where does our eye travel after taking in the dominant?

7) COMPOSITION
-How is the two-dimensional space segmented and organized? What is the underlying design?

8) FORM
-Open or closed? Does the image suggest a window that arbitrarily isolates a fragment of the scene? How are the visual elements carefully arranged and held in balance?

9) FRAMING
-Tight or loose? Do the characters have room to move around in, or can they move freely?

10) DEPTH
-On how many planes is the image composed? What do we see in the background?

11) STAGING PROBLEMS
-Which way do the characters look from the camera?

12) CHARACTER PROXEMICS
-How much space is there between the characters?

MOVEMENT IS NOT SIMPLY A MATTER OF WHAT HAPPENS, BUT HOW THINGS HAPPEN.

The OBSERVER has to be the CAMERA and it needs to know where it s going.

THE VALUE OF A SHOT ALWAYS DEPENDS ON A NARRATIVE.

” You make the movie through the cinematography – it sounds quite a simple idea, but it was like a huge revelation to me.”
– Nicolas Roeg

THE PRINCIPLES OF PERSPECTIVE

-Finding the right points of the sequence and getting to tell the best narrative story

AESTHETIC DISTANCE – Phrase used to describe the degree to which a work or art manipulates the viewer

FIRST PERSON POINT OF VIEW – Sees events through the eyes of the character

THIRD PERSON POINT OF VIEW – Presents action as seen by an ideal observer

OMNISCIENT POINT OF VIEW – Having to know what the character is thinking. Requires a type of narration, voice-over or graphics

PAN SHOT, Used to:
-Include space greater than can be viewed through a fixed frame
-Follow action as it moves
-Connect two or more points of interest graphically
-Connect of imply a logical connection between two or more subjects

“Cinematography is infinite in its possibilities… much more so than music or language.
– Conrad Hall

CRANE SHOT
-Inherently majestic and holds our interest regardless of the subject because of the sheer physical pleasure of the move
-Permits us to feel the dimensions of the world by penetrating space, further endorsing its reality through the illusion of depth
-Eats up time on the set
-Careful planning and preparation is vital

TRACKING SHOT
-Used to follow a subject or explore space
-A dolly moves towards a subjects face can be used to emphasize a character’s moment of realization. A dolly always tends to isolate the subject as well

TRIPOD SHOTS
-Usually is used only in stable and relatively predictable shooting situations
-Makes very controlled transitions from subject to subject possible
-Makes very controlled image transitions possible
-Makes stable close-ups possible at the telephoto end of the zoom lens
-Conveys the cool, assured view

HANDHELD SHOTS
-Can react to events, much as we do in life
-Implies a spontaneous event driven quest
-Conveys a subjective, even vulnerable point of view

****

Submit your Film, Screenplay, Novel, Story, or Poem anytime to the festival today: http://www.wildsound.ca

Watch recent Writing Festival Videos. At least 15 winning videos a month:http://www.wildsoundfestival.com

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Interviewer Matthew Toffolo is currently the CEO of the WILDsound FEEDBACK Film & Writing Festival. The festival that showcases 10-20 screenplay and story readings performed by professional actors every month. And the FEEDBACK Monthly Festival held in downtown Toronto on the last Thursday of every single month. Go to www.wildsound.ca for more information and to submit your work to the festival.

Cinematography Interviews and Production Notes

Read the best of Director of Photography interviews and Cinematography notes from the to people working in the industry today: 

Interview with Cinematographer Chad Griepentrog (The Bachelor Reality TV Series)

https://matthewtoffolo.com/2016/02/17/interview-with-cinemtographer-chad-griepentrog-the-bachelor-reality-tv-series/

Interview with Cinematographer Albert Arthur (Better Call Saul, Breaking Bad)

https://matthewtoffolo.com/2016/02/16/interview-with-cinematographer-albert-arthur-better-call-saul-breaking-bad/

Notes on CINEMATOGRAPHY – SHOTS AND CAMERA ANGLES

https://matthewtoffolo.com/2015/06/01/notes-on-cinematography-shots-and-camera-angles/

Photography in Film. The art of Cinematography

https://matthewtoffolo.com/2015/05/14/photography-in-film-the-art-of-cinematography/

Interview with Harrison Norris, Director of the award winning film “A PEACEFUL MAN”

https://matthewtoffolo.com/2015/11/10/interview-with-harrison-norris-director-of-the-award-winning-film-a-peaceful-man/

Interview with director James Hartley (TWISTED)

https://matthewtoffolo.com/2015/12/08/interview-with-director-james-hartley-twisted/

Interview with Cinematographer Chad Griepentrog (The Bachelor Reality TV Series)

It was a blast sitting down with the Director of the Photographer of the hottest show on television: “The Bachelor”. Chad Griepentrog reveals a lot of funny behind the scenes moments, including shooting in the “fantasy suites” and trying to hold back his laughter with his fellow camera-operators so the shot isn’t ruined. Shooting reality television is a very difficult job. Enjoy the interview: 

Matthew Toffolo: What is your job as the cinematographer on a Reality TV Show set? From being in studio to on location?

Chad Griepentrog: My job is to basically try to make chaos look as good as possible without slowing down the production schedule or disrupting the cast. For the most part, reality shows are produced fast and cheap. Every shoot day is packed with locations and content that must be captured. The story is created through the actions of the cast members, so the mentality is to “shoot everything and the story will expose itself”. There can be several camera operators on the set at one time, in which case I’d be in charge of making sure everyone has the same camera settings, filters etc. The DP is also the sounding board for the camera department. The director or producers can come straight to me with questions or requests. If a show allows for lighting and art setups (like The Bachelor), I’ll get to scout locations before we start the season. During the scouts, I’ll make note of what looks best and at what time of day, the power available at that location, the limitations for gear load in, what we need to bring in as far as furniture or set dressing, what lights we will be needing and how to rig them, what we need as far as generators or big lifts for lighting, what camera extras we can employ (long lenses, GoPros, sliders, slow motion, etc.) and so on. On the day of the shoot, I’ll need to light areas for the cast depending on what the activities are. Usually it’s nighttime parties or romantic dates. Since content is king, I have to “walk away” once cast arrives. This means that once the cast sits in, I cant stop everything to run in and adjust a light or move a fork on the table that’s reflecting into someone’s eyes. You also have to light and dress for wide shots and close-ups at the same time. Oftentimes, the cameras will need to see 360 degrees, so there’s nowhere to hide anything like light stands or grip gear. It’s challenging for sure. And time is always a huge hurdle. There’s never enough! We always set up in broad daylight and the cast arrives right around sunset or soon after. This means that you have to prepare everything as best you can during the day, and once it gets dark, do the final touches and set levels as fast as humanly possible. Also, these are real people- not actors. The cast has to feel at ease- you can’t blast them with bright lights. They can’t possibly fall in love with one another with a camera operator breathing down their necks. So besides dressing and lighting in a way that lets the cast feel at ease, we play further back and wear dark clothes and keep equipment tucked away. You have to plan on people not landing where you want them to, or sitting super awkward and not falling into the proper lighting. Of course, I don’t do this all on my own. I work closely with the set dressers from the art department and the gaffer from the electrical department. Collaboration is the name of the game in TV and film.

PHOTO: The Bachelorette and her men inside the mansion:

the_bachelor_art_direction.jpg

Every show is a little bit different in what they ask of the DP. Most shows will have the DP shoot a little, but spend the majority of his/her time working on lighting or setting up scenes, or even doing B roll. -While oftentimes the smaller, lower budget shows might have the DP shooting everything. I’ve DP’d episodes of “Intervention” where I’m literally shooting all day. My job at that point falls into getting the best coverage I can to best tell the story and to give the editors the shots they need to cut together a story. It’s all about being flexible and telling the story with what you have- i.e. available light.

Matthew: You started off an a camera assistant on Fear Factor 15 years ago and have moved all the way up to being the cinematographer on one of the most popular television shows today in The Bachelor. What is the bigget thing you’ve learned climbing up the ladder of success?

Chad: Even before AC-ing, I started a couple years prior as an extra (background actor), then found a few jobs as a production assistant on super low budget movies…so I started at the very bottom. The biggest thing I’ve learned since getting into the business is the importance of having a good attitude. Having a successful career in this industry is extremely rewarding, but not easily attained. You’ll work insane hours for low pay, eat awful food, take direction from people who sometimes have no idea what they’re doing, you’ll work in horrible locations, sleep in terrifying places, miss holidays and family functions and so on. But if you can do all of this with a smile on your face, directors, producers and production managers will notice. Good attitudes are contagious to other crew members. Good attitudes will help you through the “dry spells”, where there doesn’t seem to be any work at all out there. Good attitudes will help you build a network and enable you to get on the jobs you’re most interested in working. Also, the ability to get along with others is extremely important. There’s always someone better than you, so having a chip on your shoulder doesn’t do you any good. Be humble. Let people do their jobs and respect them and their departments. Everyone is here for the same reason- because none of us could survive in an office!

Matthew: What is the craziest or zaniness show you’ve work on?

Chad: I’d have to say it was “The Joe Schmo Show”. That was insane! If you haven’t seen it, it’s a show where every cast member is actually an actor or actress and there’s only one “real” person, who has no idea what’s going on. Basically, it’s an entire show where the same person is being punked the whole time. It was hilarious and so over the top. You learn a lot about people while shooting “reality”. But every show is a little nuts if you think about it. The very first day of Fear Factor had people eating sheep eyeballs in a barn in front of live sheep! We broke for lunch right after and Joe Rogan was behind me in line and said “well, it’s been fun- but this show’s not going anywhere”. It ended up being the biggest show on NBC! Or Survivor, where people would starve until the day where they had a food auction. People were eating chocolate Sundays and cheeseburgers after existing on rice for a month. Right after, they all puked and had diarrhea about 10 feet away. Or on “Superstar USA”, where there was a singing competition, but the judges led on the worst singers to think they were the best. And so on…

PHOTO: The Joe Schmo TV Show:

joe_schmo_show.jpg

Matthew: Do the reality stars eventually forget that the camera is even there, or are most always aware that someone is recording them?

Chad: Usually- or let’s just say they get comfortable with them. Even more, they forget about the microphones they wear. Just look at the documentary “The Jinx”, where Robert Durst slipped up and confessed to the murders while he was alone in the bathroom- but still mic’d. But people do forget about the cameras. Sometimes it takes a while. It helps when the cast and crew don’t interact. People seem to be more distracted by the operator than the camera. On some shows it’s forbidden for camera operators to talk to the cast at all- we are invisible. There are also tricks we do to lead people to believe that we’re not filming. We know a lot of those, but it’s a secret!

Matthew: How many camera operators are there on a typical day on set for The Bachelor? How many hours of video is logged each day typically?

Chad: On “Bachelor”/ “Bachelorette” the number of crews dwindle as does the cast throughout the season. Night one (when the limos pull up and all the cast members are revealed, then go in for the big party) has 16 operators- that’s 16 camera operators who are working at least 12 hours- shooting possibly 10 hours of footage….that’s 160 hours of footage! By the end of the show, some 7 or so weeks later, there will be roughly 6 crews. Each crew consists of an operator, a camera assistant and an audio mixer.

PHOTO: The Bachelor Hot Tub Scene:

bachelor_hot_tub_scenes.jpg

Matthew: How is the setup for each camera operator? Do you work in a control room and guide the shooting while each camera operator has a runner/assistant with them?

Chad: Typically with that many cameras there has to be someone in charge, whether it be a house director, field director or competition director. Camera operators all get to know “the dance”. Basically, if there’s more than one operator shooting a scene, they will choose a “line”- referring to the 180 degree rule. That way, the eye line of every cast member will be going the correct direction and therefore easily editable. The operators spread out and cross shoot without going across the line. The operators signal to one another with hand gestures or over the walkies who has what shot (single, two shot, wide, etc.). That way everyone can make sure that they’re covering the scene without missing anything or replicating another’s shot. The director helps by alerting the operators of upcoming changes (someone new entering, who’s reaction to focus on, etc.) or they’ll help block out things like car pull-ups & exits, host or special guests talking to groups, etc.

Matthew: If The Bachelor goes on a group date for example with 10 other girls, how many times do you break to do the interviews during a typical date? How fast are you able to set up the interview spots when you’re on location somewhere?

Chad: During a group date, the interviews can happen at any time. Interviews are crucial to just about every reality show. They are the backbone of reality storytelling. Even when you think a scene speaks for itself, they’ll cut into an interview to hear what someone (whether in the scene or not) thought about what happened. Usually you want the interviews to take place immediately after something interesting happens so it’s fresh in the people’s minds and they’re still emotional about it. Before a group date starts, we’ll set up 2 or 3 interview spots. These are always in close proximity to the “hub” of the party, yet private and quiet. The interviews usually end up being in tiny hotel rooms with awful white walls that we curse while setting up. Sometimes you’ll se more immediate and less “set up” looking interviews. This is called “on the fly” or OTF. In this situation, there’s usually someone crying or very emotional in some other way and there’s no time to take them to a room and set them down. In these cases, you’ll be lucky to get a tripod and a light.

Matthew: Do you have a favorite behind the scenes Bachelor moment? Something the crazed fans would love to hear?

Chad: I’ve had so many over the years. Most include something related to the cool locations we get to visit- like animals attacking our gear in Africa, or scaring the crap out of each other in a dungeon in Prague. Or the time I was bucked off a horse and broke my hand because we thought it would be a good idea to shoot on horseback, or jumping off waterfalls with the cast in Hawaii, or getting stuck on a glacier in Iceland, or the scouts where we get to do all the things the cast does, but a week earlier. My favorite though is when I flew over my tiny hometown in Colorado in the Playboy private jet with only a producer, Hugh Hefner and his Playmate girlfriends. I wish my high school guidance counselor could see me then! One time I ordered pizza and hot wings for my crew. We were so hungry and excited to eat, but had to wait until after the interview we were shooting. During that time, one of the female Bachelor cast members ate our entire pizza and wings! Then she purged! Thanks a lot lady!

It’s always fun to try to make other operators laugh while shooting. There have been so many times where 2 cast members are in the “fantasy suite” laying on the bed, kissing and giggling and whispering sweet nothings- while I’m literally a foot from them and there’s another camera operator on the other side of the bed. A couple funny looks can lead to some pretty epic laugh attacks (but you have to hold it in so the cast doesn’t hear).

PHOTO: The Bachelor Fantasy Suite:

bachelor_fantasy_suite.jpg

Matthew: How has the technology changed since you started? Are the cameras easier to handle than in the past?

Chad: The technology has changed immensely. When I started everything was standard definition. I spent a couple years as a tech assistant and as a “mini cams” guy, where to do a simple helmet cam required a ton of gear- batteries, cables, recording decks, more batteries, cameras with dip switches for controls, padding for the recording decks, and if you wanted it waterproof….. Anyway, that’s all been replaced by GoPros, which are incredible in every way. Drones are another game changer. Many of the newer cameras have better images, but are much more difficult to operate. These would be the DSLR’s, Canon C 300’s & 500’s, Black magics, REDs, F5’s and F55’s, etc. By the time you have all the rods, focusing knobs, monitors, audio adaptors and cables in place, the cameras are 3x the size and make zero sense ergonomically. If you’re going to be operating for hours on end, you want to have everything at your fingertips. The Sony F800’s are the easiest, most reliable cameras for reality in my opinion. And for larger sensors, I prefer the Arri Amiras. They look incredible and are easy to operate. It’s crazy that our phones now take better videos than broadcast cameras just a few years ago. I’ve seen cameras produce better images for less and less money. Now literally anyone can shoot their own film. You no longer need a 35mm film camera, money for film stock or a grip and electric truck full of expensive lights.

Matthew: What film have you seen the most times in your life?

Chad: American Movie. It’s a documentary about a guy who is struggling to finish his short film. The movie is shot very simply but tells a great story and the characters in it are hilarious. Definitely worth the watch.

Matthew: Our of all the reality shows you’ve worked on, do you have a favorite or two?

Chad: Survivor and The Bachelor come to mind first. Survivor season 3 (Kenya) was my first legitimate travel show. I couldn’t believe that someone was paying me to spend 2 months on a private game reserve with a crew of a couple hundred super cool people from all over the world. Every day was like being on safari, but no tourists. Survivor Palau was incredible as well. Surfing and diving just about every day, let alone working in only board shorts on white sandy beaches. The Bachelor shows are amazing as well because we travel all over the place and get access to places that normal people can’t- like being the only ones in the Tower of London at night, or on the roof of the space needle- not just the top, or sports fields, castles, etc. One season of the Bachelorette, we spent time in Iceland, Portugal and Tahiti all in one season! What makes this show amazing are the people you work with side by side on a daily basis. It’s crazy how close you get with co-workers. In a couple months you might spend more time with your camera assistant than you did with any of your best friends from high school. On location, you see such amazing places and after a long day, you go out with the same people and explore the cities, then you fly together to a new place, then on your days off, you might surf or golf or dive or zipline with the same people. I can’t say enough about the experiences I’ve been fortunate enough to have along the way. I feel like I haven’t “worked” in years. It’s not for everyone, but if you love adventure, it’s the best.

Matthew: What suggestions do you have for high school or university students who would like to be reality show camera operators?

Chad: I would say try to reach out to people in the field who you may know or even a family friend’s friend’s uncle’s neighbor. Email production companies to see if they’re looking for production assistants or interns. If you like a specific show, go on IMDB and look up the production company that produces it, or even the name of the production manager. Find them on facebook if you have to. It’s never been easier to get into this field. There are about a million reality shows out now. When I started there was one. There are websites like “staff me up” that list job postings. Maybe see if you can intern at a rental house- learn the gear inside and out first and meet cinematographers who are picking up gear. Like they say, it’s who you know that gets you the job, but what you know that lets you keep it . Also, you don’t have to live in LA. A lot of people work full time in Atlanta, New York, Miami, etc. Film school is good- but not 100% necessary. I studied film, but only truly “learned” by being on set. You can learn a lot on the web. Youtube. Forums. Look up hurlbutvisuals.com. If you work hard and keep a good attitude, you can get on those shows that interest you. If you want to shoot in Alaska or the swamps of Louisiana or film midgets in Utah, there’s a show for you. It may take a few years before you get a job as a camera assistant or operator, but be persistent. When I was a production assistant picking up trash on set, I’d talk to people from the different departments and learn about their jobs and ask a lot of questions. It wasn’t long before people would start asking if I could give them a hand on the next project. Be flexible and don’t give up!

_____

Interviewer Matthew Toffolo is currently the CEO of the WILDsound FEEDBACK Film & Writing Festival. The festival that showcases 10-20 screenplay and story readings performed by professional actors every month. And the FEEDBACK Monthly Festival held in downtown Toronto on the last Thursday of every single month. Go to www.wildsound.ca for more information and to submit your work to the festival.

Photography in Film. The art of Cinematography

FILM PHOTOGRAPHY
FILMMAKING NOTES

Cinematography is the art of manipulating light and shadow, and capturing it as a moving image. We’ll be posting articles and insights – maybe a bit of inspiration too! Whether you’re a pro or have hardly picked up a camera except to point and shoot at a birthday party, we hope you’ll find some useful information below.

CINEMATOGRAPHY – SHOTS AND CAMERA ANGLES

QUESTIONS TO ASK:
-What is the best viewpoint for filming this position of the event?
-How much area should be included in this shot?

SCENE defines the place or setting where the action is laid
SHOT defines a continuous view filmed by one camera without interruption
SEQUENCE A series of scenes or shots complete in itself.

TYPES OF CAMERA ANGLES
OBJECTIVE The audience point of view
SUBJECTIVE The camera acts as the viewers eyes-movement
POINT OF VIEW What the character is seeing

CAMERA ANGLES Are the most important factor in producing illusion of scenic depth. Which angle the object is photographed.

FIVE BASIC ANGLES

EYE LEVEL SHOTS Provide frames or reference. Audiences sees the event as if in the scene. Most scenes in movies are photographed from eye level. 5 to 6 feet off the ground. Capturing the clearest view of an object.-Treating your characters as equals. Discourages viewers at judging them and permits audience to make up their own minds.

BIRDS EYE VIEW Photographing a scene from DIRECTLY OVERHEAD. Hovers from above like all powerful gods. Idea of fate.

HIGH ANGLED SHOTS Camera is tilted downward. Movement is slowed down. A person seems harmless and insignificant photographed from above.-The higher the angle, the more it tends to imply fatality

-Heightens the importance of a subject. Scenes depicting heroism

OBLIQUE ANGLE Lateral tilt of the camera. As though the object is about to fall to one side. POINT OF VIEW SHOTS.
-Suggests tensions, transitions, impending movement
IMAGE THAT SLANTS TO THE RIGHT Acting forceful
IMAGE THAT SLANTS TO THE LEFT Weak, static
ASK YOURSELF
-How much should be included in this shot?
-Where should the camera be positioned to view this particular part of the action?

A shot should be held no longer than required to make its point.

Approach each sequence with a fresh attitude and strive to treat the action in an individual matter.

A definite change in camera angles will assure a smoother flow of images.

Cinematography

“And later I thought, I can’t think how anyone can become a director without learning the craft of cinematography.”
– Nicolas Roeg

SIX BASIC SHOTS

1) Extreme Long Shot Taken at a great distance. Almost always an exterior shot and shows much of the locale. Establishing shots usually
2) Long Shot The distance between the audience and the stage in the live theater
3) Full Shot Barely including the whole body
4) Medium Shot Knees to waste up. Useful for exposition scenes, carrying movement and for dialogue
5) Close-Up Concentrates on a relatively small object. HUMAN FACE
6) Extreme Close-Up Might just show eyes or mouth

CLOSEUPS
-Are among the most powerful storytelling devices available to the filmmaker
-Allows removal of tedious or repetitious action
-Can be used to provide a time lapse
-Bring that dramatic punch

FRAMES
-Area near the top of the frame can suggest ideas dealing with power, authority and aspiration
-Left and right edges of the frame can suggest insignificance

DOMINANT CONTRAST Area that immediately attracts our attention because of a conspicuous and compelling contrast

SUBSIDARY CONTRAST Structured image so that specific images are followed in sequence. Whatever character or object that is most dramatically important will assume dominance.

The HUMAN EYE scans pictures from left to right

HORIZONTAL LINES Move from left to right
VERTICAL LINES Move from top to bottom
DIAGONAL OR OBLIQUE LINES tend to sweep upward
TERRITORIAL SPACE movie images must tell a story in time. A story that involves human beings and their problems.THREE VISUAL PLACES MIDGROUND, FOREGROUND, BACKGROUND

SPACE is one of the principal mediums of communication in film

Dominant characters are almost always given more space to occupy than others are.

You can define, adjust and redefine human relationships by exploiting spatial conventions

ACTOR CAN BE PHOTOGRAPHED IN FIVE BASIC POSITIONS
1) Full Front Facing the camera
2) Quarter turn
3) PROFILE looking off frame, left to right
4) Three quarter turn
5) Back to Camera

FULL FRONT Most intimate, vulnerabilities exposed-Audience agrees to become their chosen confidante.

QUARTER TURN Involves a high degree of intimacy but with less emotional involvements

PROFILE More remote.
-Character lost in their own thoughts.

THREE QUARTER TURN More anonymous. Rejecting audiences

BACK TO CAMERA Characters alienation from the world. Sense of concealment, mystery.

TIGHTLY FRAMED SHOTS Confined

LOOSLY FRAMED SHOTS Freedom

PROXEMIC PATTERNS Climax, noise level and the degree of light all tend to alter the space between individuals

1) INTIMATE Eighteen inches away. Distance of LOVE, COMFORT, TENDERNESS between individuals

2) PERSONAL Eighteen inches to about four feet away. Reserved for friends and acquaintances

3) SOCIAL Four feet to about twelve feet away. Business and casual social gatherings

4) PUBLIC – Twelve to about twenty feet away.

ANALYSIS OF ANY GIVEN SHOT – TWELVE ELEMENTS

1) SHOT AND CAMERA PROXEMICS
-What type of shot is it? How far away from the action is the camera?

2) ANGLE
-Are we looking up or down on the subject, or is the camera neutral?

3) LENS and/or FILTER
-How do these distort or comment on the photographed materials?
4) LIGHTING STYLE
-High or low key lighting? High contrast? Some combination of these?

5) DOMINANT
-Where is our eye attracted first?

6) SUBSIDIARIES
-Where does our eye travel after taking in the dominant?

7) COMPOSITION
-How is the two-dimensional space segmented and organized? What is the underlying design?

8) FORM
-Open or closed? Does the image suggest a window that arbitrarily isolates a fragment of the scene? How are the visual elements carefully arranged and held in balance?

9) FRAMING
-Tight or loose? Do the characters have room to move around in, or can they move freely?

10) DEPTH
-On how many planes is the image composed? What do we see in the background?

11) STAGING PROBLEMS
-Which way do the characters look from the camera?

12) CHARACTER PROXEMICS
-How much space is there between the characters?

MOVEMENT IS NOT SIMPLY A MATTER OF WHAT HAPPENS, BUT HOW THINGS HAPPEN.

The OBSERVER has to be the CAMERA and it needs to know where it�s going.

THE VALUE OF A SHOT ALWAYS DEPENDS ON A NARRATIVE.

” You make the movie through the cinematography – it sounds quite a simple idea, but it was like a huge revelation to me.”
– Nicolas Roeg

THE PRINCIPLES OF PERSPECTIVE

-Finding the right points of the sequence and getting to tell the best narrative story

AESTHETIC DISTANCE Phrase used to describe the degree to which a work or art manipulates the viewer

FIRST PERSON POINT OF VIEW Sees events through the eyes of the character

THIRD PERSON POINT OF VIEW Presents action as seen by an ideal observer

OMNISCIENT POINT OF VIEW Having to know what the character is thinking. Requires a type of narration, voice-over or graphics

PAN SHOT, Used to:
-Include space greater than can be viewed through a fixed frame-Follow action as it moves
-Connect two or more points of interest graphically
-Connect of imply a logical connection between two or more subjects

“Cinematography is infinite in its possibilities… much more so than music or language.
– Conrad Hall

CRANE SHOT
-Inherently majestic and holds our interest regardless of the subject because of the sheer physical pleasure of the move
-Permits us to feel the dimensions of the world by penetrating space, further endorsing its reality through the illusion of depth
-Eats up time on the set
-Careful planning and preparation is vital

TRACKING SHOT
-Used to follow a subject or explore space
-A dolly moves towards a subjects face can be used to emphasize a character’s moment of realization. A dolly always tends to isolate the subject as well

TRIPOD SHOTS
-Usually is used only in stable and relatively predictable shooting situations
-Makes very controlled transitions from subject to subject possible
-Makes very controlled image transitions possible
-Makes stable close-ups possible at the telephoto end of the zoom lens
-Conveys the cool, assured view

HANDHELD SHOTS
-Can react to events, much as we do in life
-Implies a spontaneous event driven quest
-Conveys a subjective, even vulnerable point of view

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Interviewer Matthew Toffolo is currently the CEO of the WILDsound FEEDBACK Film & Writing Festival. The festival that showcases 10-20 screenplay and story readings performed by professional actors every month. And the FEEDBACK Monthly Festival held in downtown Toronto on the last Thursday of every single month. Go to http://www.wildsound.ca for more information and to submit your work to the festival.